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聽故事學4000英語詞匯118:修西得底斯和雅典瘟疫

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广东36选7好彩3开奖奖金多少 www.oabxa.com 4000 Essential English Words 4 Paul Nation

4000英語核心詞匯4 保羅·納森

Unit 28 Word List

第28單元 單詞表

avail n.

效用

Avail is help. It is often used in the achievement of a goal.

指幫助,通常用于指實現目標。

→ His studying was to no avail because he failed the test.

他的學習毫無用處,因為他考試不及格。

expand v.

擴張

To expand is to become bigger in size.

在規模上變得更大。

→ A balloon will expand as you blow air into it.

當你往氣球里吹氣時,它就會膨脹。

define v.

使明確

To define means to clearly state, show, or explain what something is.

清楚地陳述、展示或解釋某物是什么。

→ People define success in many different ways.

人們對成功有許多不同的定義。

dread v.

懼怕

To dread is to be afraid of something that could, or is going to, happen.

害怕可能發生或將要發生的事情。

→ I dread the idea that I will not get into college.

我害怕我上不了大學。

fundamental adj.

基本的

If something is fundamental, it is a basic part of something.

某物的基本部分。

→ The fundamental rules of basketball are easy.

籃球的基本規則很簡單。

horrifying adj.

令人極其震驚的

If something is horrifying, it is frightening and very unpleasant.

可怕的和非常不愉快的。

→ There was a horrifying car accident today.

今天發生了一起可怕的車禍。

incredulous adj.

懷疑的

If someone is incredulous about something, they do not believe that it is true.

指不相信某事是真的。

→ She was incredulous that monkeys could ever drive a car.

她不相信猴子會開車。

linger v.

徘徊

To linger is to last for a long time.

表示長時間持續。

→ The smell of fresh cookies lingered in the bakery.

新鮮餅干的香味在面包店里久久不散。

organism n.

有機體

An organism is a living thing, especially a very small one.

有生命的東西,尤其指很小的生物。

→ We studied the organism on the microscope.

我們用顯微鏡研究這種有機體。

paraphrase v.

釋義

To paraphrase is to make someone else's writing or speech shorter.

將別人的文章或演說歸納。

→ The students were asked to paraphrase the story they just heard.

學生們被要求復述他們剛剛聽到的故事。

plague n.

瘟疫

A plague is a serious disease that quickly spreads to many people.

一種嚴重的疾病,會迅速傳播給許多人。

→ A plague in Europe killed millions of people.

歐洲的一場瘟疫奪去了數百萬人的生命。

presently adv.

目前

If something happens presently, it is happening right now.

指發生在當下的。

→ Presently, our profits are good, but by next year we can do even better.

目前,我們的利潤很好,但到明年我們可以做得更好。

random adj.

隨機的

If something is random, it happens without any pattern or reason.

沒有任何模式或理由的。

→ Young children often ask random questions.

小孩子經常隨便問問題。

riot n.

暴亂

A riot is a crowd that reacts to bad news by violently breaking laws.

一群對壞消息做出暴力違法反應的人。

→ A riot broke out after the candidate lost the election.

候選人競選失敗后發生了騷亂。

scribble v.

亂寫

To scribble is to write something quickly without caring about how it looks.

指寫東西很快而不關心看起來怎么樣。

→ I scribbled a rough diagram of our plan and gave it to him.

我草草畫了一張我們的計劃草圖給他。

shrine n.

神殿

A shrine is a religious building built to honor a person, event, or god.

為紀念一個人、事件或上帝而建造的宗教建筑。

→ He prayed at the shrine for an hour.

他在神龕里祈禱了一個小時。

Solitude n.

隱居

Solitude is the state of being totally alone.

完全孤獨的狀態。

→ John lives a life of solitude because he doesn't get along well with people.

約翰過著孤獨的生活,因為他與人相處不好。

stark adj.

完全的

If a contrast is stark, then the things being compared are utterly different.

指完全不同的。

→ There is a stark contrast between their test scores.

他們的考試成績截然不同。

summon v.

召喚

To summon a person is to ask them to come to you.

指讓人來找自己。

→ We summoned the doctor as soon as we noticed she was sick.

我們一發現她病了就去請醫生。

worsen v.

惡化

To worsen is to get worse.

指變得更糟糕。

→ The weather suddenly worsened, and we had to stay inside.

天氣突然變壞了,我們不得不呆在室內。

Thucydides and the Plague of Athens

修西得底斯和雅典瘟疫

Thucydides was the world's first historian. Presently, we get most of our knowledge about ancient Greece from his writing. But Thucydides didn't just write about history, he lived through it. However, he almost didn't survive one historical event: the Plague of Athens.

修西得底斯是世界上第一位歷史學家。目前,我們對古希臘的大部分知識都是從他的著作中獲得的。但是修昔底德不僅僅寫歷史,他還經歷了歷史。然而,他差點喪命于一件歷史事件:雅典瘟疫。

In 430 BCE, an army attacked the city of Athens, where Thucydides lived. Thousands of people hid from the army behind Athens' large walls. The city became very crowded as the population expanded. Then a horrifying disease broke out. People summoned doctors. But it was to no avail because no one understood how the disease spread. It seemed random. They didn't know that it was an organism. Instead, they defined disease as a punishment from their gods. Thucydides was incredulous that gods caused the plague, but he explained why others believed it. There was an old, long verse which predicted the disease. To paraphrase it, the verse said the gods would send a disease during a war. As a result, large crowds gathered at shrines to ask the gods to stop the plague. But the situation only worsened because these people were so close to each other they became sick. That's how they learned a fundamental lesson about the plague: it spread from person to person.

公元前430年,一支軍隊襲擊了修西得底斯居住的雅典城。成千上萬的人躲在雅典的高墻后面躲避軍隊。隨著人口的增長,城市變得非常擁擠。然后一種可怕的疾病爆發了。人們請來醫生,但也沒有用,因為沒有人知道這種疾病是如何傳播開來的。這種病似乎是隨機傳播的,他們不知道這是一種病毒。相反,他們把疾病定義為來自神的懲罰。修西得底斯不相信是神引起了瘟疫,但他也說明了其他人相信這一說法的原因。有一首古老的長詩預言了這種疾病。詩中說神會在戰爭期間傳播疾病。因此,很多人聚集在神殿里,祈求神靈阻止瘟疫。但情況卻越變越糟,因為這些人彼此靠得太近,大家都被傳染了。他們也從中了解到了瘟疫的基本知識:它會在人與人之間傳播。

People wanted to leave the crowded city, but they dreaded what the army outside would do to them. At this time, Thucydides got sick, too. He quickly scribbled down notes because he thought he would soon die. His writing shows a stark contrast between people's behavior before and during the plague. There were riots, and people ignored laws. They didn't think they'd live long enough to be punished. Many sick people were left to die in solitude because no one wanted to be near them. The plague lingered for two years. But luckily, Thucydides survived. Without his writing, we would know much less about ancient Greece and the Plague of Athens.

人們想離開這座擁擠的城市,但又害怕外面的軍隊。這時,修西得底斯也病了。他很快地寫下筆記,因為他認為自己很快就會死去。他記錄了瘟疫前和瘟疫期間人們行為的鮮明對比。城里發生了騷亂,人們無視法律,因為他們認為自己活不到接受懲罰的時候。許多病人孤獨地死去,因為沒有人愿意靠近他們。瘟疫持續了兩年。但幸運的是,修西得底斯活了下來。如果沒有他的記錄,我們就不會知道這么多關于古希臘和雅典瘟疫的事情。

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