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汽車廢棄輪胎危害有多大?又該如何處理?

hxyxm 于2019-11-21發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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隨著汽車數量的迅速增加,如何處理大量的廢棄輪胎已成為大問題,而在印度北部還在使用傳統的高溫分解的方式對廢棄輪胎進行處理。這也對當地村民的生活造成重大影響。
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广东36选7好彩3开奖奖金多少 www.oabxa.com Where Do Old Tires Go

廢棄輪胎的去處及其危害

Not long ago, Nabipur was a quiet farming village in northern India. Now the village is home to several large furnaces. They burn old tires from Western countries. The air is sometimes thick with smoke and the soil black with soot.

不久前,納比普爾還是印度北部一個安靜的農村。現在村子里有幾座大火爐。他們燒西方國家的舊輪胎??掌杏惺泵致排ㄅǖ難濤?,土壤被煤煙熏黑。

By burning tires, the furnaces produce a low-quality oil in a process known as pyrolysis.

通過燃燒輪胎,爐子產生一種低質量的油,這個過程被稱為高溫分解。

Six years ago, there were no pyrolysis production centers in the village, about 110 kilometers south of New Delhi. Now Nabipur has at least 10 plants, with most operating at night to avoid inspection, some locals say.

六年前,這個位于新德里以南約110公里的村莊還沒有熱解生產中心。一些當地人說,現在納比普爾至少有10家工廠,大多數都在晚上運營,以避免檢查。

Used tires are not available locally, so they import from abroad, said Shiva Choudhary, a businessman in Nabipur. "They clean their own country and dump their garbage on us."

納比普爾的商人希瓦·喬杜里說:“當地沒有二手輪胎,所以只能從國外進口,”。“他們打掃自己的國家,把垃圾倒在我們身上。”

The Reuters news agency sent reporters to three small pyrolysis plants in the village.

路透社派出記者前往村里的三個小型熱解廠。

At one, workers wore no safety equipment. Black soot covered their skin and clothes. The owner, Pankaj, said a trader sells him tires imported from overseas.

有一次,工人們沒有穿戴安全設備。黑色的煙灰覆蓋著他們的皮膚和衣服。店主潘卡伊說,一個商人把從海外進口的輪胎賣給他。

Villagers said they have suffered from breathing problems and eye and throat infections since the plants began expanding. Farmers say they have found black dust in their soil.

村民們說,自從這些工廠開始擴建以來,他們一直受到呼吸問題、眼睛和喉嚨感染的困擾。農民們說他們在土壤中發現了黑色的塵土。

The Reuters news agency could not independently confirm the claims. It was also not possible to verify if the operations had a government permit to operate.

路透社無法獨立證實這一說法。也無法核實這些行動是否有政府的作業許可證。

International trade in waste tires has almost doubled over the past five years, mainly to developing countries like India and Malaysia. This information comes from customs records provided to the United Nations.

過去5年,廢輪胎的國際貿易幾乎翻了一番,主要流向印度和馬來西亞等發展中國家。這些資料來自提供給聯合國的海關記錄。

Britain is currently the largest tire exporter, followed by Italy and the United States. India, responsible for 32% of all imports worldwide last year, is by far the biggest buyer.

英國目前是最大的輪胎出口國,其次是意大利和美國。印度去年占全球進口總額的32%,是最大的買家。

The Basel Convention is an international agreement that governs trade in dangerous waste. The convention does not define tires as hazardous, meaning there are few restrictions on trading them.

《巴塞爾公約》是一項管理危險廢物貿易的國際協定。公約并沒有將輪胎定義為有害的,這意味著對輪胎的貿易幾乎沒有限制。

In many countries, such as the United States, most old tires are placed in landfills, recycled or used as fuel in factories.

在許多國家,如美國,大多數舊輪胎被放在垃圾填埋場,回收或在工廠用作燃料。

Pyrolysis supporters say the process can be a relatively clean way of disposing of tires and turning them into useful fuel. However, controlling pollution and processing waste can be costly and difficult to make profitable on a mass scale.

熱解支持者說,這個過程可以是一個相對干凈的方式處理輪胎,并把它們變成有用的燃料。然而,控制污染和處理垃圾的成本很高,而且很難大規模盈利。

State-of-the-art plants can cost tens of millions of dollars. However, basic Chinese-made pyrolysis equipment can be purchased online for as little as $30,000.

最先進的核電站可能耗資數千萬美元。然而,中國制造的基本熱解設備在網上只需3萬美元就可以買到。

At one plant Reuters visited in Malaysia, Bangladeshi immigrants covered in dust put imported tires into a Chinese-made furnace. They live in a small shelter next to the furnaces.

路透社在馬來西亞訪問的一家工廠,滿身灰塵的孟加拉國移民將進口輪胎放入中國制造的熔爐。他們住在火爐旁邊的一個小棚子里。

People don't know where old tires go, said the owner, who gave his name only as Sam. "But if my factory doesn't exist, where will the tires go?" He said he had a permit to operate. However, Reuters could not verify this information.

店主山姆說:“人們不知道舊輪胎去哪兒了,”。“但如果我的工廠不存在,輪胎又會去哪里呢?”他說他有營業執照。然而,路透社無法證實這一點。

Burning tires can release numerous harmful chemicals and gases into the environment, as well as particulates, said Lalit Dandona. He heads the India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative, a research group studying health issues in India.

拉蒂·丹多納說,燃燒的輪胎會向環境釋放大量有害的化學物質和氣體,以及微粒。他領導印度國家級疾病負擔計劃,這是一個研究印度健康問題的研究小組。

Dandona said short-term effects included skin irritation and lung infections. Longer exposure could result in heart attacks and lung cancer, he said.

丹多納說,短期影響包括皮膚刺激和肺部感染。他說,長期接觸可能導致心臟病和肺癌。

Other government agencies worldwide have reached similar conclusions.

世界各地的其他政府機構也得出了類似的結論。

I'm John Russell. And I'm Ashley Thompson.

約翰·拉塞爾和阿什利·湯普森為您報道。

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